What is a Stacked Camera Sensor

What is a Stacked Camera Sensor and How Does It Work?

Most smartphones have a camera island that is thicker than the rest of their bodies. Even with that extra bump, they are thinner than their predecessors from a few years ago and take pictures and videos that look better.

Remember the point-and-shoot cameras from the 2000s? Those were needed in the early years of on-the-go photography. Everything in modern technology is crammed into devices that are sometimes only half an inch thick. This is possible because of stacked image sensors.

Understanding Digital Photography

In contrast to digital cameras, which have an electronic sensor, analog cameras record images on a piece of film made of a photo-sensitive material. Each pixel (individual point that makes up a digital image) in that sensor is lighting data that is captured by a minuscule portion of the sensor (one for each pixel in the picture).

Digital camera sensors come in two different varieties: CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) and CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor). This latter technology is used by all current smartphone cameras, so we’ll go over it in more detail below.

There are a few components that make up a CMOS sensor. The most significant component is the photodiode, which when exposed to light produces an electric signal. The photodiode’s immediate neighbor, a transistor, stores that signal and sends it to an electronic circuit after converting it to digital information.

The image signal processor (ISP), which creates the final image, receives this data from the circuit and processes it along with the other billions of pixels.

The Early Days of Phone Cameras

CMOS sensors had a significant problem up until 2008: the wiring required to transmit pixel information to the ISP passed between the photodiode and the lens, obstructing some of the light. The same structure was used for CCD sensors, which were more sensitive to light, but for CMOS, that resulted in photos that were darker, noisier, and blurrier.

That was resolved with the help of a straightforward concept: elevating the photodiode above the wires will allow it to receive more light, enhancing image quality. In contrast to earlier sensors, which were Front-Side Illuminated, this one is referred to as a Back-Side Illuminated (BSI) sensor.

Read More: When Were Video Cameras Invented?

Source: makeuseof

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